Ailanthus does have a significant presence in Kansas, mostly as an escapee from household planting going back over 100 years.
But, it has a very soft pith, rather than any true heart wood. It’s also very light weight and has a smoother, thinner and lighter colored ‘bark’. The ability to push out the pithy core makes it useable for making whistles.
As noted in the linked article, it’s noticable odor gives it a nickname of ‘stinking sumac’ and around here I’ve heard it called skunk wood.
Edit: Apparently some people call the smell ‘nutty’, but I can say that to me it’s very skunky.
I can say that the color of hickory can vary greatly from tree to tree (including all/nearly-all blond). It’s hard as #&!!. As hard or harder than Orange Osage in my anecdotal experience, machining well, but sanding with difficulty.
The darkness and texture of the bark made me think persimmon. I had such a tree once in college hill [i think its still there but in the back yard]. But i’ve never seen the plank wood other than branches it dropped. It was defs a hardwood. But not osage orange strandy. [Learned from sawing off broken branch stubs].
Your sample isnt yellow enuf for hickory imo, but Ive seen a lot of cabinetwood samples claiming to be hickory. And it was whiter than I expected, AND had lots of dark contrasts in the wood. Really dark contrasts.
I worked in a woodshop in college and learned that there are lots of difficult wood Identification opportunities. But save the bark as that will likely be the clincher imo.
My money is on persimmon, but unless I can handle it, Im just guessing from the bark photo. And I have no idea where you might buy such wood. Maybe a treefall timber rescue?
Btw, persimmons require male and female, and often cant survive Kansas winters in the open. Ours was nestled between garage and house. Protected. And across the fence from the biggest magnolia Ive seen in these parts … so a protected space.
Persimmon is in the ebony family. I had one in my backyard too, and the bark on mine was deep deep, almost 2" thick with lots of deep splits in it. My neighbor used to make wine from the fruit. Unfortunately it had taken on some sort of disease and was punky throughout when I felled it so I couldn’t tell you what the wood was like. I did manage to keep a wormy burl that I hope to turn one day though.
We called ours “The popcorn tree”. The blooms were about the right size and color, and after they were done, they fell onto our driveway like a gentle rain of popcorn. So much fermenting nectar, and many bees could be found, drunk on the driveway. It was hilarious. “Go sleep it off girl. Make more honey tomorrow”.
We swept up bushels of “popcorn” for weeks and it made the best compost too". No other trees nearby so we never saw fruit. Altho my Mom sais she had seen some along with pawpaw trees when she was a kid.